Authorship[ edit ] The Upanishads have been attributed to several authors: Yajnavalkya and Uddalaka Aruni feature prominently in the early Upanishads. Radhakrishnan considers authorship claims in the text to be unreliable, believing the supposed authors to be fictional characters. Different researchers have provided different dates for the Vedic and Upanashic eras. Some authors believe the oldest of these, the Brihadaranyaka, Jaiminiya Upanisadbrahmana and the ChandogyaUpanishads, were composed during the pre-Buddhist era of India ,   [note 6] while the Taittiriya, Aitareya and Kausitaki, which show similarities to Buddhism, may have been composed after the 5th century BC. He proposes a separate chronology based on a battery of six tests. Prasna, Maitri, Mandukya Group I: Katha, Mundaka, Svetasvatara Group V: Prasna, Mandukya, Maitrayani Pre-Buddhist, prose:
Monier-Williams ‘ Sanskrit Dictionary notes — “According to native authorities, Upanishad means setting to rest ignorance by revealing the knowledge of the supreme spirit. The word appears in the verses of many Upanishads, such as the fourth verse of the 13th volume in first chapter of the Chandogya Upanishad. Max Muller as well as Paul Deussen translate the word Upanishad in these verses as “secret doctrine”,   Robert Hume translates it as “mystic meaning”,  while Patrick Olivelle translates it as “hidden connections”.
The Upanishads. THE UPANISHADS ( – B.C) Brahmanism (The Way of Knowledge) 1. Meaning ‘to sit down near’, so close that the teacher could whisper in your ear – the Upanishads are often called ‘the secret teachings of Hinduism.
Chronology[ edit ] The chronology of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, like other Upanishads, is uncertain and contested. Brihadaranyaka is one of the oldest Upanishads, along with that of Jaiminiya Upanishad and Chandogya Upanishads. It is credited to ancient sage Yajnavalkya , but likely refined by a number of ancient Vedic scholars. There are two major recensions for the text – the Madhyandina and the Kanva recensions.
It includes three sections: It asserts that there was nothing before the universe started, then Prajapati created from this nothing the universe as a sacrifice to himself, imbued it with Prana life force to preserve it in the form of cosmic inert matter and individual psychic energy. The Soul, states Brihadaranyaka, is the imperishable one that is invisible and concealed pervading all reality. Mind is a means, prone to flaws. The struggle man faces, asserts Brihadaranyaka in brahmana 3, is in his attempt to realize the “true reality behind perceived reality”.
That is Atman-Brahman, inherently and blissfully existent, yet unknowable because it has no qualities, no characteristics, it is “neti, neti” literally, “not that, not that”. Yajnavalkya states that one doesn’t connect with and love forms, nor does one connect or love mind, rather one connects with the Self, the Soul of one’s own and one’s beloved. All love is for the sake of one’s Self, and the Oneness one realizes in the Self of the beloved.
The Upanishad is notable for asserting that all gods are Rudra, everyone and everything is Rudra, and Rudra is the principle found in all things, their highest goal, the innermost essence of all reality that is visible or invisible. Rudra is Atman and Brahman, and in the heart. The Atharvasiras Upanishad is an ancient text likely written in BCE, but its exact dating is uncertain. It is mentioned in Gautama Dharmasutras verse
However, there has been considerable debate among authorities about the exact dating of individual Upanishads. Be that as it may, the Upanishads are amongst the most influential books ever written. Their significance has been recognised by several writers and scholars over the centuries.
C Brahmanism The Way of Knowledge 1. They are the philosophical commentaries on the Vedas. They were also a reflection on the dominance of the priests for instead of turning outwardly to the Gods, it was to look inwardly within oneself to where Brahman resides. The teaching is concerned with the discovery of the real Self that which is the same in all things.
How does it taste? Then his father told him to set it aside and then sit with him. For that invisible essence is the finest essence of all this world, and in that invisible essence every creature has its Self. Tat tvam asi, Svetaketu. The Liberation From Suffering in the Upanishads: Rebirth must go on until MOSKA liberation is reached and therefore rebirth is the chief source of suffering.
As with the four elemental creatures around the throne of God which have been associated with the four Gospels, the four faces of Brahma have been associated with the four Vedas, the earliest Hindu scriptures. This symbolism is explored further below. Beyond the multiplicity of deities, there is only one Spirit Supreme. The universal Spirit of Brahma is called Brahman. The Spirit of Brahman dwells in our hearts as our own immortal Spirit, the Atman.
However, there has been considerable debate among authorities about the exact dating of individual Upanishads. The Upanishads were collectively considered amongst the Most Influential Books Ever Written by the British poet Martin Seymour-Smith.
The spirits are believed to surround mankind in all aspects of life and death. This all pervading spiritual presence is a feature common to many polytheistic religions; another is that these spirits are both male and female. This concept of divine partnership is a prominent aspect in many polytheistic religions from ancient times to this very day. In closing let me say this: I have had teachers treat folks as though believing in God made you automatically stupid. If you encounter this, Remember: Believing in God does not make you stupid; Galileo believed, Newton believed, Einstein believed.
Johnson worked as a scientific research consultant for the University of Texas in the ‘s under top Texas Scientists illustrating reconstructions of Paleontology and Anthropology, oddly enough, he then worked under the guidance of the world’s foremost Biblical Scholars for the Center for Judeo-Christian Studies. The two dramatically different experiences back to back brought important things to his attention and caused him to wonder Has Science become a Religion?
The Immmortal Vedas
Astronomical evidence and the Upanishads A famous Flemish emeritus professor recently reacted to my off-hand mention of a date for the major Upanishads, viz. He thought that this should be BCE, a date obviously borrowed from the textbooks. It is no big deal that a Western philosopher, not specializing in the chronology of Indian history, should abide by the received wisdom in this matter; but the few specialists know it to be highly controversial.
When scholar upon scholar claims just as off-hand that the Brhadaranyaka, Chandogya, Katha etc. Upanishads date from BC, I always wonder:
A similarly internalized Gita, though stripped of its activist import, was favored by American Transcendentalists dating back through Thoreau and Emerson to Walt Whitman, and stretching forward through many secular interpreters familiar to modern global yoga, who see in the text the invitation to a posthistorical contemplative trance.
Translations from the Katha, Prasna and Chhandogya Upanishads. Puranas The Puranas are post-Vedic texts which typically contain a complete narrative of the history of the Universe from creation to destruction, genealogies of the kings, heroes and demigods, and descriptions of Hindu cosmology and geography. There are 17 or 18 canonical Puranas, divided into three categories, each named after a deity: Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva.
There are also many other works termed Purana, known as ‘Upapuranas. Wilson [ ] A primary text of the Vaishnava branch of Hinduism, and one of the canonical Puranas of the Vishnu category. Among the portions of interest are a cycle of legends of the boyhood deeds of Krishna and Rama. Wilson was one of the first Europeans to translate a Hindu sacred text from the original Sanskrit.
His style and annotations are exceptional and very readable. Subrahmanyam [ ] A Vishnu Purana with Dantesque descriptions of the afterlife, and details of Hindu funeral rites. Hollings [ ] English translation of a popular Hindi retelling of the Krishna cycle, based on the tenth book of the Bhagavata Purana. This is a collection of laws attributed to Manu.
citta vrtti nirodhah
Jnana is strongly associated with the ongoing tradition of Vedanta, one of the celebrated six schools of Indian philosophy. The classical Upanishads became known as Vedanta, meaning the end of the Veda. The word Vedanta “was understood to mean not just the end but also the summit and crown of the Veda” Olivelle These books received later commentaries from medieval exponents like Shankara. The classical Upanishads are much earlier than the monastic organisations created by medieval Vedanta.
Brief Summary of Upanishads ‘Brief Summary of Upanishads’ gives the gist of Upanishads studied during the 16th Vedanta Course () conducted by Resident Acharya, Sw. Bodhatmanandaji, at Sandeepany Sadhanalya, Mumbai, under the overall Guidance of Poojya Guruji, Sw. Tejomayanandaji.
This is a blog to discuss philosophy, chess, politics, C. Lewis, or whatever it is that I’m in the mood to discuss. Thursday, January 25, Six Concepts from the Upanishads My History of World Religion classes are covering Hinduism, and these central concepts from the Upanishads are central to the Hindu tradition; Six Concepts from the Upanishads Brahman-The divine reality underlying all things. It is reality itself, pure consciousness, and bliss.
It is the way thing are in the final analysis, when we see reality without illusion maya. Unlike the Judeo-Christian-Islamic tradition, The Hindu Brahman is not a transcendent creator and sustainer of the world but is the universe itself. It is beyond time and space, hence in the Hindu tradition space and time themselves are only the world as it appears to us, not the world as it is in itself.
The great Rishis of the Vedic age composed the hymns, fought their wars, and ploughed their fields; but they were neither Brahmins, nor Kshatriyas nor Vaisyas. The banks of the distant Ganga and Jumna are rarely alluded to; the scenes of war and social ceremonies are the banks of the Saraswati and her tributaries. This was the Hindu world when the hymns were composed. India’s first spiritual and cultural ambassador to the West, came to represent the religions of India at the World Parliament of Religions, held at Chicago has said:
Hinduism/The Vedas. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world Upanishads. The Aranyakas, (likely dating to the Gupta period) attributes the current arrangement of four Vedas to the mythical sage Vedavyasa.. Puranic tradition also postulates a single original Veda that, in varying.
The term thus emphasizes the esoteric nature of the texts, not intended for public teaching, but restricted to the confidentiality of personal instruction. The Upanishads were transmitted orally by the Vedic schools sakhas. The language of the Upanishads is Sanskrit , the oldest among them still classifying as late Vedic Sanskrit. These early texts may date back to the 8th-7th centuries BCE. According to tradition, there were over two hundred Upanishads, but the philosopher and commentator Shankara only composed commentaries to eleven of them.
The Upanishads commented on by Shankara are generally regarded as the oldest ones.