The first two-thirds of this essay deals with the rock formations of the Grand Canyon — what they are, and how and when they formed. This should be educational and understandable to readers without a science background. This essay is long. The low rainfall in the region reduces vegetative cover, so the colorful rock layers remain exposed to view. This deep gash in the earth provides a window into the geological past. Nearly all geologists understand these layers to have been deposited over the course of hundreds of millions of years. This essay starts with a tour of the Grand Canyon, noting evidence that shows the Canyon rocks are indeed very old. YE creationists hold to a literal interpretation of the Bible, which does not adequately take into account the intent of the Scriptures or the historical circumstances of their authorship.
Determining Relative Geologic Ages You can use principles of relative geologic age to determine sequences of geologic events, including rock formations, intervals of erosion, tilting, folding, and faulting like those represented in the block diagrams and cross-sections below. Be sure to review the principles of relative geologic age on the Geologic Time Basics page. You can click on each of the images in Part 2 for a larger version in a separate browser window.
The figure above is a block diagram represents three horizontal geologic strata layered formations of rock. Which stratum is the youngest? Which is the oldest?
GEOLOGY: EARTH’S HISTORY Use the links below to explore available resources covering major concepts associated with the study of the history of the Earth. Resources in this section pertain to the formation and evolution of the Earth and how it has been discovered through the relative and absolute dating of rocks and fossils.
Consider also the most popular explanation offered for the photo right , that a concretion formed around an s-era hammer as minerals precipitated out of the surrounding limestone. From Adam until Real Science Radio , in only generations! Another paper, in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology Eugenie Scott ‘s own field on High mitochondrial mutation rates , shows that one mitochondrial DNA mutation occurs every other generation, which, as creationists point out , indicates that mtEve would have lived about generations ago.
That’s not so old! As our List of Not So Old Things this web page reveals, by a kneejerk reaction evolutionary scientists assign ages of tens or hundreds of thousands of years or at least just long enough to contradict Moses’ chronology in Genesis. However, with closer study, routinely, more and more old ages get revised downward to fit the world’s growing scientific knowledge.
Consistent with this observation, the May issue of National Geographic quotes the U. Forest Service’s scientist at Mount St. Helens, Peter Frenzen, describing the canyon on the north side of the volcano. But this was cut in less than a decade. Helens, the volcanic mount, is only about 4, years old! Secular scientists default to knee-jerk, older-than-Bible-age dates.
Hydrodynamics of coastal areas and current systems along continental margins The new undergraduate degree in meteorology and oceanography means that my teaching duties are being shuffled. Introduction to Oceanography and a series of graduate oceanography classes that attracted mostly students pursuing the MS in Marine Biology.
With the new degree I will start teaching more majors classes. The first was offered last spring, Metr and , a combined course to introduce atmospheric and oceanic dynamics. Well, most of them appreciated the cruise This academic year I have the opportunity of being the visiting faculty at the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories.
Correlation is done by matching rock layers by rock type, grain size, the presence of fossils and other distinctive features. By interpreting the sequence of geologic events in a single outcrop, a geologist (or stratigrapher) can determine the geologic history of that single locale.
Each lesson is designed using the 5E method of instruction to ensure maximum comprehension by the students. The following post will walk you through each of the steps and activities from the geologic time scale lesson plan. Class Activity The teacher can model this activity first. You can do it with the class or prepare it prior to class. Cut off feet of receipt tape. Depends on your age. Draw pictures related to important events in your life in the correct place on the timeline.
Student Activity Now have the students make a timeline of their lives. Have them add up important events with pictures. Make sure they put them in chronological order. Tell students they will be learning about the geological timescale of the age of the Earth and how scientists determined it. Explain the difference between geological time and historical time.
A History: ’s Word of the Year
High School Statutory Authority: Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Chemistry or concurrent enrollment in Chemistry. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11, or
U of A anthropologist Willoughby believes that the items found prove continuous occupation of the areas over the last , years, through what is known as the “genetic bottleneck” period of the last ice age.
Introduction Evolution itself is simply the process of change over time. When applied to biology, evolution generally refers to changes in life forms over time. The Theory of Biological Evolution is most often associated with Charles Darwin, because it was Charles Darwin that proposed the mechanism of natural selection and accompanied that proposition with a large volume of empirical data providing evidence for biological evolution.
Darwin was not, however, the first person to propose an evolutionary explanation for the diversity of life on earth. In fact, evolutionary concepts about life date far back into history and arose in many different cultures. The Greeks developed a concept of evolution over 2, years ago that was basically equivalent to that of Charles Darwin’s, but the early Christians opposed the idea and destroyed all of the works that promoted it or any other naturalistic explanations for earthly phenomena.
Origin Mythology There are literally thousands of different mythological stories about the origin of the world and of life. There are several common themes in origin mythology, but there are many different means by which the universe, earth, life, and man have come into being throughout the various different origin myths. The importance and role of origin mythology has varied widely from culture to culture throughout history as well.
In many archaic cultures origin mythology was not central to the belief system, nor were the origin myths fully thought-out to a logical conclusion. In societies that did not have writing, origin myths, like all of the other myths, were passed down orally, and often served as a form of entertainment as well as a means of passing on beliefs that were important to the society.
When looking at origin myths from around the world several patterns can be observed.
GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE LESSON PLAN – A COMPLETE SCIENCE LESSON USING THE 5E METHOD OF INSTRUCTION
We often express time in hours or days, and 10 or 20 years certainly feels like a long time. Imagine if you needed to think about one million, million, or even several billion years. The Earth is 4. Have places like the Grand Canyon and the Mississippi River been around for all of those years, or were they formed more recently? When did the giant Rocky Mountains form and when did dinosaurs walk the Earth?
Geological time or “deep time” dates Earth at about bya. Earth’s past has been organized into various units according to major geologic and life based events which took place. For example, the break up of a super continent or the formation of a new mountain range would be a geologic reason to begin or end an eon, period, or epoch.
Posted on May 11, by Geoscience Research Institute The hypothesis of a large meteorite impacting the surface of the Earth at the end of the Cretaceous was introduced almost four decades ago. However, competing models and lively discussions are still unfolding over the dynamics and environmental consequences of this large impact. This short article attempts to a summarize the evidence that led to the acceptance of the hypothesis; b assess current areas of uncertainty related to the impact hypothesis; and c consider ways in which this event is relevant for creationist thinking.
History of the hypothesis and geologic evidence Fig. This is one of the initial localities where the iridium anomaly was first detected. Therefore, Alvarez et al. The theory gained strength because the iridium anomaly was detected at the K-Pg boundary in many localities around the globe, a prediction of the impact hypothesis.
Walter Brown’s “Hydroplate” Flood Model Doesn’t Hold Water
In fact, common sense should be invoked more often in scientific discussions, where it is sometimes deficient and scorned. Scientists may string out a detailed argument that reaches an implausible conclusion contradicting common sense. But many other scientists nevertheless accept the implausible conclusion, because they get caught up in the details of the argument.
Using a method to calculate the absolute age of the rocks is a technique of data analysis as well as the correlations between the rock layers and the ages of the crosscutting concept of patterns is a theme across all of the dimensions in this activity.
What is the difference between relative age and absolute age? Relative age does not assign a number to an age, but is only used to say, for example, whether rock A is older than rock B. Absolute age actually assigns a number, for example “this shale is about million years old. Relative income measures your income in relation to other members of society, weighing it against the standards of the day.
Absolute income, meanwhile, does not take into consideration those other factors, but simply reflects the total amount of earnings you have received in a given period. What is a difference between relative and absolute poverty? Absolute Poverty is when people do not have enough money to meet the basic threshold that is needed for survival. People fall below this line and do not have enough money to buy food, shelter, clothing etc. Relative Poverty is when people are poor when compared to others around them, but may still have enough money to survive.
It is based on the cultural environment around them, not on a basic amount necessary for all humans to survive.